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- ItemMainstreaming Gender for Enhanced COVID-19 Rural Livelihood Recovery in Zambia(African Economic Research Consortium, 2022-06) Manda, SimonCOVID-19 pandemic has revealed the role and importance of women in driving livelihood and resilience, particularly in agricultural settings. Pandemic-related restrictions have affected agricultural livelihoods whilst exposing inequalities across gender. Frequently cited statistics show, across sub-Saharan Africa, women contribute 60–80% of labour, producing food for household consumption and for sale. In Zambia, the agricultural sector is dominated by women, yet land and other economic opportunities often marginalize women (Manda 2022). Women constitute 64% of the rural population and approximately 80% of food producers (GRZ 2010; FAO, 2018). Living conditions reveal diverse gender based vulnerabilities (ZAMSTATS 2015). Without fittingly relevant policy interventions, COVID-19 is more likely to worsen gender divides and inequalities in several key productive sectors such as agriculture. Whereas sector-specific policies can help mitigate impacts of COVID-19, little is known about the impacts of the pandemic across gender and how policies play out.
- ItemLabour Market and Unpaid Childcare Trajectories by Gender During the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Africa: Lessons for Policy(African Economic Research Consortium, 2022-06) Mosomi, Jacqueline; Thornton, AmySince the first case of COVID-19 was reported in South Africa in March 2020, the government has continued to put in place regulations to curb the spread of the virus. Some of the measures introduced included confining the population as much as possible to their homes, popularly referred to as the ‘hard’ lockdown which was implemented on 27 March 2020. During the hard lockdown, only essential economic services could be provided and only workers who could work from home continued working. The measures taken to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, such as the closure of Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres and schools presented working parents with a time allocation challenge. This is because individuals have had to balance office work, childcare, and housework. This policy brief presents the main findings from a study that analysed the labour market and unpaid childcare trajectories by gender. The study also highlights some lessons for policy.
- ItemCOVID-19 and Gendered Access to Medical Services in Nigeria(African Economic Research Consortium, 2022-06) Adewole, Ololade Grace; Omotoso, Kehinde OluwaseunAs with other developing countries, Nigeria faced gender inequity in access to health care services before COVID-19 emergence. This has been a major hindrance to the attainment of universal health coverage and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The COVID-19 crisis and the attendant measures to contain it interrupted access to medical services, exacerbating gender inequities in access to medical services (Kotlar et al., 2021). Our study examines gender differential in access to medical services during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria and explores contextual factors such as poverty, inter-and intra-household resources allocation, decision-making, inequality, power relations, socio-cultural norms, and perceptions that influenced access to sexual reproductive health.
- ItemGendered Socio-economic and Health Effects of COVID-19 in Informal Settlements in Kenya(2022-06) Kosimbei, George K.; Omolo, Jacob O.; J. Rono, GladysThe demand and supply shocks during the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures that were adopted by the government to contain the spread of the disease disrupted economic activities leading to loss of employment, income, and livelihoods. Most affected jobs were mainly in the informal economy, especially the micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) dominated by women. Lockdowns and curfews and the widespread fear of infection and contagion, and heightened uncertainty about the disease, affected access to prenatal and postnatal health care services.
- ItemCOVID-19, Livelihoods and Inequality: Poor Female -Headed Families Fare Worse in Kenya and Ethiopia(African Economic Research Consortium, 2022-06) Makate, Marshall; Makate, CliftonThe COVID-19 pandemic has affected men and women differently in Kenya and Ethiopia, both at the household level and within the workplace. Like in many countries,this pandemic is being experienced againstthe backdrop of existing social and economic disparities. Over the last few decades, there has been tremendous progress and commitment by the governments of Kenya and Ethiopia in tackling poverty through crafting policies that promote economic opportunities and encourage inclusive growth for everyone. However, this progress has not been shared equally across the board as inequalities in social and economic dimensions persist (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2020; World Bank, 2020). The samepolicy strategies aimedatreducingpoverty andincreasingurbanizationand rural development could increase inequalities. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, poverty is thought to be on the rise again, with women, children, the elderly and other vulnerable groups of the population bearing the bigger brunt. The growing evidence on the impact of the pandemic across countries points to rising inequality levels, mostly precipitated by the subsequent lockdown measures. While the COVID-19 pandemic and the public health measures implemented to minimize its spread have affected every citizen in Kenya and Ethiopia, individuals living in female headed families, with children and those living in rural areas are thought to have suffered the most. The implementation of containment measures such as lockdowns and curfews made it difficult for people especially those living in rural areas to move around make a living. With many of these people relying on mobility, seasonal and migrantwork, andremittances tomake endsmeet,theCOVID-19pandemicpresented a huge negative shock to their livelihoods. In other coun¬tries including Kenya and Ethiopia, there has been a massive return of migrants to rural areas, mostly due to loss of employmentin urban areas.Disruptions to seasonal migration and remittance flows to rural areas represents a shortfall in crucial financing lifeline for many poor people living in rural communities (Ochieng, 2020).