Health Economics


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 30
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    Financial Inclusion and Resilience to COVID-19 Economic Shocks in Nigeria
    (African Economic Research Consortium, 2024-04-11) Adeniran, Adedeji P.; Muthinja, Moses M.
    We examine the role of financial inclusion, ownership of bank accounts, and previous use of formal financial saving facilities as a resilience factor in the effect of COVID-19 on households' welfare in Nigeria. Using a novel data set that tracks food security among families in Nigeria before and during COVID-19, we find a negative effect of COVID-19 on welfare. The impact is more severe among male-headed households, those living in the southern region of Nigeria, and lower educated households. We also test how financial inclusion mitigates this effect through a triple difference analysis in which the households that are financially included and in non-agricultural sector are considered the treatment group. Financial inclusion did not support resilience to shock among non-agricultural homes. Given the magnitude and multisectoral dimension of the COVID-19 shock, financial inclusion was not enough to mitigate the effect. This, therefore, points to a role for stronger government support in a large shock like COVID-19.
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    Financial Inclusion and Resilience to COVID-19 Economic Shocks in Nigeria
    (African Economic Research Consortium, 2024-04-11) Bénédicte, Atchade Touwédé
    Using data from Benin’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS, 2018), we examined the impact of the purchasing power of women on the quality of life of children under the age of five years. More specifically, the study examined the impact of the decision-making power of the woman on the nutritional status of children and also of nutritional status on children’s immunization status, using a Multinomial Logit model with the households as the theoretical models. The results of our study generally show that when the woman is involved in decision making within her household, the nutritional status of children and their immunization status are satisfactory. Variables such as the age of the woman, her level of education, the level of education of the head of the household, the employment status of the head of the household, the main decision maker on the health of the children, the interval between child births, the level of wealth of the household and the sex of the child significantly improve the immunization status of children under the age of five years. However, variables such as the distance from a hospital, giving birth to twins and the order of birth have a negative impact on the immunization status of children. In regard to the nutritional status of children, variables such as the age of the woman, her level of education, the management of the income of the woman, the wealth level of the household, the fact that the child is a girl and the fact that the parents collectively decide on the health of the children lower the probability of the child being malnourished. However, variables such as birth order to the children, the fact that the children are twins and age of the child increase the probability of a child being malnourished. Initiatives and approaches therefore should be undertaken in order to increase the empowerment of women. The results of this study will have a positive impact on the nutritional status of women. In the short term, these recommendations should have an impact on the scholarly results of children, in the medium term on the labour market, and in the long term on sustained economic growth.
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    The Determinants of Protective Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Benin
    (African Economic Research Consortium, 2024-04-10) Dedewanou, F. Antoine
    This paper investigates the determinants of protective behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic in Benin. We use data from online and phone surveys collected during the period 13 September 2020 ‒ 1 October 2020 among Benin citizens aged 18 years and older. Trust in government, beliefs about others’ compliance and employment status are significant determinants of compliance with the precautionary measures such as handwashing and social distancing. We also document significant association between trust in government and media use. These findings, therefore, suggest that the Government of Benin’s messages should focus on developing and maintaining trust among the public by providing transparent, coherent, clear, timely, and accurate information that reduces people’s uncertainty and enhances compliance. Two-way communication between the government and citizens can act as bridge to ensure public engagement and disseminate information. Key words: Compliance behaviours; Trust in government; Media use; Benin
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    Can Results-Based Financing Help Reduce Wealth-Based Disparities in Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Zimbabwe?
    (African Economic Research Consortium, 2023-09-19) Makate, Marshall; Mahonye, Nyasha
    Results-based financing (RBF) programme evaluations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have concentrated on quantifying the impact of such programmes on maternal and child health outcomes, worker satisfaction and quality of care. Very few studies have considered assessing the effectiveness of these programmes from a distributive perspective. This study uses nationally representative data from the Zimbabwe demographic and health survey complemented with geographic location data. As a first step, the empirical approach quantifies wealth-related inequalities in selected maternal and child health outcomes using concentration indices at the district level. A standard difference-in-difference model complemented by kernel-based propensity score matching was used to consistently estimate the impact of the RBF programme on the equality of maternal and child health outcomes across socioeconomic gradients in Zimbabwe by comparing the changes in concentration indices between 2010 and 2015 in ten districts with RBF and thirty districts without the RBF programme for 12 indicators of access to maternal health care and nine indicators of child health outcomes. The results show that the RBF programme was associated with greater and significant improvements in equity related to several outcomes. These outcomes included: prenatal care use (four or more prenatal care visits), family planning, quality of prenatal care (blood pressure checks, iron tablets, and tetanus toxoid vaccinations), child full immunizations, and treatment for fever occurring in the two weeks before the survey. The RBF programme did not appear to ameliorate wealth-related inequality regarding child low birth weight, neonatal mortality, stunting, diarrhoea prevalence, treatment for diarrhoea, and fever prevalence. A sensitivity check of the estimates indicates that our results are weakly robust to considering absolute inequality measures (slope index of inequality and the generalized Gini index). From a policy perspective, the results have important implications for public health policies geared towards improving access to maternal and child health care services in developing countries. Our analysis reveals that RBF programmes do not necessarily eliminate wealth-related inequality in maternal and child health outcomes in Zimbabwe but are certainly a valuable complement to equity-enhancing policies in the country.
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    The Influence of Women Empowerment on Child Nutrition in Rural Nigeria
    (AERC, 2022-03) M.B., Salawu,; K.K, Salman; Rufai, A.M; I., Ogunniyi
    Women empowerment is key to reducing weak dietary diversity and chronic child malnutrition. In Nigeria, child malnutrition is persistent, despite several interventions, which failed to factor in the need to empower women to eradicate the menace. In thisstudy, we examined the influence of women empowerment on child nutrition in rural Nigeria, using the five basic domains of empowerment, namely: production, resources, income, leadership and time. Data from General Household Survey Panel 2015-2016 were analysed using Poisson regression, Ordinary Least Square regression and Instrumental Variables techniques to correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that most (over 90%) of households consumed cereals, vegetables, oils and fat, spices, condiments and beverages. They also show that, on average, women had access to less than two empowerment indicators, implying low empowerment among them. Women empowerment significantly increased household dietary diversity and consequently reduced the probability of child stunting. These findings support the claim that women empowerment is a pathway out of the cycle of weak dietary diversity and consistent child malnutrition in rural Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that complementary and supportive policies on women empowerment, aimed at preventing and reducing severe child malnutrition in Nigeria, should be strengthened.