Labour Economics


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 6
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    (2022-06-09) MOMANYI, JOSHUA OKUMU
    This study applied PPML estimation technique to analyze Kenya’s determinants of bilateral trade flows in goods. It used panel data covering 166 Kenya’s trading partner countries for the period 2005-2020. The empirical results reveal that economic size, population, relative factor endowment, per capita GDP differential, trade openness, bilateral real effective exchange rate, regional trade agreement (RTA) and WTO membership, similarity in legal systems, and religious beliefs positively influence Kenya’s bilateral trade flows. Conversely, distance, contiguity and common language negatively impact Kenya’s trade flows in goods. The outcome also illustrates that Kenya’s trade patterns are anchored on the Heckscher-Ohlin theory which states that nations with similar factor endowments witness higher trade transactions than those with contrary factor endowment proportions. The study also found that institutional quality and institutional distance (homogeneity) are not significant in influencing Kenya’s trade flows in goods. Given that the results showed that Kenya trade more with distant countries compared to its neighbors, there is need for Kenya (through relevant authorities) to develop appropriate trade policies to raise its trade potentials with its neighbors
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    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2011-09-22) Mtingele, Achilana Mkunga
    This dissertation examines the impact of competition on employment in the telecommunications industry in Tanzania. Specifically, it addresses the question “Does competition in telecommunications industry in Tanzania have any significant impact on employment?” Furthermore, the competitive pressure existed in the industry after liberalization in the 1990s is what induced the study. The panel data available for this dissertation over the period of seventeen years, allows estimation of competition and levels of employment that control for firm fixed effects. The model estimated relies on employment equation that uses competition variable measured by Herfindhal-Hirschman Index as one of the regressors. The findings based on OLS estimates indicate that 1 per cent increase in competition increases employment by 1.02 per cent but the coefficient estimate is not significant, partly suggesting biasness of OLS. When firm fixed effects are controlled for, the model demonstrates robust positive correlation between competition and employment; 1 per cent increase in competition increases employment by 0.66 percent; these results are highly significant at 5 per cent. Such results suggest that OLS estimates are indeed biased. The dissertation concludes significant positive correlation between employment and competition hence recommends for more efforts to support employment creating competition.
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    (University of Ghana , Legon, 2012-07-12) AGYEMANG, AMOS SARFO-
    The Ghanaian economy has witnessed an influx of banks in the past two decades. This phenomenon however, brings to the fore issues of employee turnover as the banks compete for efficient workers. A Bank of Ghana research for the period 2001 to 2007 discovered a year-onyear increase in the employee turnover costs incurred in the banking industry. In another research, out of the 14 sampled countries in Sub Saharan Africa, the Bank of Ghana identified Ghana to be the leading nation in terms of costs involved in the hiring and firing of employees. Studies on employee tenure in the banking sector remains scarce in the Ghanaian context and most available ones worldwide are single sided in their analysis; thus they seek to examine employee tenure in relation to either individual or firm characteristics. The objective of the study is to examine how both firm and individual characteristics influence employee tenure in the banking sector of Ghana. Multinomial logit regressions results from the study which employed primary data of randomly sampled 138 employees across the commercial banks in Ghana revealed that current job tenure is significantly influenced by individual characteristics such as level of education, age and experience. Co-workers’ relations, workload and wages were found to be the firm characteristics that significantly explained their current tenure. Job offer received was also proven to be significant. Results from the logistic regression (binary logit) also suggested that gender, wages, incentives and the years spent on the job were important determinants of the intent of tenure. In line with the findings, it is recommended that banks should ensure satisfactory levels of wages and incentives given to their employees. They should again embark on family-friendly policies for their employees and also be circumspect in their recruitment activities.
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    (University of Ghana , Legon, 2012-07-21) EGYEI, RICHMOND KINGSLEY
    In spite of the major efforts by governments in addressing the issue of children‟s participation in the labour market, much remains to be learnt about the determinants of child labour and schooling in Ghana. This study sought to explore the link between child labour, schooling and poverty using data from the 2005/06 Ghana Living Standards Survey. From a premise that child labour conflicts with the human capital accumulation of the child, an attempt is made using a logistic model to identify the determinants of child labour and schooling in Ghana. The findings from the regression results established a gender gap in schooling – in favour of girls. Child labour is found to be more of a rural phenomenon. Fathers with relatively high levels of education were found to have a significant influence on reducing the likelihood of child labour. Household ownership of productive assets (land and livestock), and other household characteristics also has a significant role to play. The result also established that children from poor households are more likely to participate in the labour market. The corresponding relationship with schooling shows that poverty reduces the likelihood of a child being in school. The result thus lends strong support to the view that poverty has a big impact on child labour. General and specific recommendations aimed at increasing school attendance and reducing child labour have been made.
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    (University of Mauritius, 2012-02-20) MULATIA, Charles Maingi
    This paper employs the annual time series data spanning 1980 to 2010 to analyze the impact of immigration on unemployment and economic growth in Kenya. This is followed by the recent attacks from the Somali’s insurgent group; al shabaab. The militias’ invasion of Kenya’s territory coupled with the fear that immigrants rob natives their jobs has raised eye brows among Kenyans. This paper seeks to allay such fears and dig on the real impact of immigrants on Kenya’s economic performance via the product and hence the labour market. In the analysis, the study makes use of instrumental variable (IV), a special case of GMM, due to the problem of data limitation and endogeneity amongst the variables. The results indicate that on obtainable evidence, fear of large gloomy employment and economic growth are not justified. The perception that immigrants steal jobs away from existing population, thus contributing to large increases in unemployment do not find verification in the analysis of data.