MIGRATION-EDUCATION LINKAGES: THE CASE OF GHANA
University of Ghana , Legon
Education and migration are very essential in development outcomes since education improves the capability of the individual. Despite studies on migration in Ghana, the link between migration and education in the Ghanaian economy is unclear. This study therefore presents an empirical examination of the linkages between migration and education in Ghana. While GLSS 4 and GLSS 5 datasets were used for the descriptive analysis, the GLSS 5 dataset was used for the econometric estimations. Heckman‟s two stage method was used in examining the impact of education on migration; however the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation was used to find the impact of migrant remittances on education expenditure. The relationship between migration and education was also examined by using the chi-square test. The empirical results revealed that a greater proportion of internal migration in Ghana is rural-rural and urban-rural. Also, an individual‟s educational attainment positively affects his/her decision to migrate. Further, it was seen that other socio-economic variables significantly affect an individual‟s migration decision. Though education affects the migration decision in both urban and rural areas, its significance varies for the different stages of educational attainment. Moreover, it was found that migrant remittances positively affect educational expenditure. Based on the findings of the study it is recommended that the education system should be improved in the entire country by providing qualified teachers and studying materials, and the rural areas should be upgraded close to the standard of the urban area in order to reduce inequality in educational infrastructure. Also, a smooth functioning credit market should be created in the country to provide financial support to households which do not receive remittances to finance their educational expenditure.