INDOOR AIR POLLUTION FROM HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE IN KENYA: ANALYSIS OF THE HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ABATEMENT EFFORTS
OSIOLO, HELEN HOKA
University of Nairobi
This thesis investigates the health outcomes of indoor air pollution from household energy use and demand for IAP abatement interventions. It has four objectives; first it determines the factors that influence the levels of indoor air pollution from household energy use, second it investigates the association between indoor air pollution form household energy use and ill health, third it estimates the health cost and productivity effects of household energy use and lastly it analyses the demand for indoor air pollution abatement interventions. The study uses data from the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey conducted by the Government of Kenya in 2005/06. Different approaches, including; the Conditional Mixed Process ordered probit, Multivariate regression and the Heckman sample selection models are used to correct for endogeneity, address unobserved heterogeneity and sample selection bias. The study also uses the cost of illness approach to estimate the health cost and productivity effects of household energy use. The results indicate that education, income and type of dwelling are the key factors that influence the level of indoor air pollution. In particular, households with low levels of income and those living in manyatta type of dwellings are likely to encounter high levels of indoor air pollution. The findings indicate that household members using firewood, kerosene and traditional stove appliances are likely to manifest upper respiratory infection, lower respiratory infection and eyes illness. In addition, the health cost for lower respiratory illness and eyes illness are found to be higher than for upper respiratory illness. Consequently the results show that; the geographical location, type of household energy used, cooking place/area, type of dwelling, income and whether households had a chimney or not are key factors that determines the demand for indoor air pollution abatement interventions. In order to reduce indoor air pollution and improve health outcomes, it is important the government introduces policies that target reduction of indoor air pollution from household energy use. Though such policies may include enhancing the use of modern energy, improved stoves and chimney as indoor air pollution abatement interventions; there is need to focus on income, education, age, and residential location.